Menu Home

Un-excluding the ‘excluded middle’

A term that gets discussed quite a bit in missiology is the ‘excluded middle’. This short article explains it better than me but it’s basically the idea that our western categories of ‘natural’ and ‘supernatural’ are too binary for the reality of the world. There’s more overlap between the spirit world and the natural world than we normally believe.

Other cultures see much more of a middle ground. The classic clash of worldviews comes when considering irrational behaviour: westerners typically label this ‘mental illness’; people from other cultures might call it ‘spirit possession’.

Our ‘excluded middle’ causes several problems for us westerners. To varying degrees, we overlook spiritual explanations for what seem to us to be ‘natural’ events. We have difficulty believing that God will act in our every day lives. We don’t pray about ‘ordinary’ things and we don’t know how to communicate to others the relevance of Christianity beyond solving our existential or philosophical crises.

So what hope is there for us? How can we un-exclude the middle?

I think the best example of an ‘un-excluded middle’ that I’ve observed in the west is my grandma, Nanny. She’s a real character in general: she talks constantly; flirts with men half her age; and is just slightly racist – ‘The Chinese are taking over the neighbourhood – but I don’t mind as long as they speak English good!’

She became a Christian when she was about 50, converted by a door-to-door salesperson she now claims was an angel sent from God. She also talks to God almost constantly. She brings all her concerns confidently to him. When she doesn’t think she’ll be able to get out of bed, she prays for strength. When she can’t find ‘the damn remote’, she prays to find it. When the microwave breaks down, she asks God to fix it. At one level, this just seems incredibly self-centred; at another, it speaks of utter dependence.

Her mobility has deteriorated recently meaning she could no longer live independently in her home in Sydney where she’s been for the last 55 years. So she moved into a nursing home around the corner from my parents in Adelaide: a huge change for her. (This is a woman who panics if she has to wait more than 5 minutes for her after-dinner coffee!) There were moments when she was settling in when she was unhappy, so of course she prayed. And not just prayers for patience but prayers like asking God to send her Red Twin at a specific time because she was lonely.

As it turned out, Red Twin was writing a seminar that day but she felt like it ‘wrote itself’. She suddenly had a free hour on her hands so she thought she may as well pop in and see Nanny rather than going the next day as she had planned. Imagine Red Twin’s surprise when she turned up and Nanny said to her, “I knew you’d come. I prayed for you to come and God sent you to me to comfort me.”

If you have an excluded middle, you call that coincidence. Maybe if you’re a Christian, you call it a ‘miracle’. But for my Nanny, who doesn’t have an excluded middle, it’s not unusual in the slightest. God answers these sorts of prayers for her all the time. I think for most of us westerners it takes a lot of faith to pray prayers like that, because we’re worried that God won’t answer them. So there’s a lot to be learnt from Nanny. Her stories embolden me to pray, believing that God isn’t distant from the everyday or the ‘natural’.

Categories: Tanzanian culture Written by Tamie

Tagged as:

Tamie Davis

Tamie Davis is an Aussie living in Tanzania, writing at

3 replies

  1. I was chatting to our non-Christian next door neighbour yesterday who says the thing that stops him believing in God is the lack of miracles. He’s a pretty rational guy and the excluded middle thing struck me in that conversation – it’s weird that we think explaining how something happened takes away any element of the miraculous. We don’t do it when we listen to a piece of music understanding musical theory, or how sound works. I like the idea that life is what happens in a venn diagram between natural phenomona and divine direction, where both are suitable explanations but the combined view is richer.

    On your nanny – Arthur better watch out if she starts praying for visits from him

  2. At NTE there was a local youth leader who did martial arts. He was talking about something like “chi energy” and trying to demonstrate how this energy might flow when striking an opponent.

    I was unwilling to believe any explanation that fitted with neither my strong knowledge of physics or my understanding of the supernatural based in the Bible. I wonder whether I was narrow-minded for not admitting anything in between (God’s power reaches all the way down, while our knowledge extends a long way up), or whether he was in error, having a Christian top storey but a pagan middle storey.

    This youth leader, in trying to demonstrate something, hit me very hard! It was more funny than painful (but embarrassing for him); he had meant to hit just in front of me but misjudged the distance.

    Btw I went to a wedding on Saturday that reminded a lot of yours.

  3. I’ve thought about this in relation to the Chinese concept of Feng Shui. When Linda and I were choosing, and later renovating our house, we made a lot of decisions based on the “feel” of certain environments and spaces. We talk about this in terms of lighting, proximity to exits, colour, etc. But Linda’s relatives talk about it in terms of Feng Shui. Same experience; different (and more supernatural) explanation. I wonder whether we underestimate the spiritual impact of environments in terms of architecture, lighting, and orientation. I wonder whether the builders of European churches knew something that we don’t. I wonder whether the “cultish” sensation I get when I go into a megachurch or crown Casino that has no natural lighting, is not merely a preference for natural light, but has significance in a spiritual sense.

    Btw…I’m enjoying your blog! Keep it up!

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: